Article Guest Lecture

Food Engineering Department ITB Held Webinar on Cacao Alkalization

BANDUNG,–Food Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology ITB and the Department of Professional Development of Himpunan Mahasiswa Teknik Pangan ITB (HMPG ITB) are collaborating to hold a webinar related to Alkalization of Chocolate which is part of the series of events “Webinars for Alkalization of the Nibs Process, Massa, and Cocoa Cake” Saturday (6/11/2021). This webinar presents the Director of Espe Food and the author of the book “Kakao dan Teknologi Produksi Coklat”, Drs. Susanto Purwo as the presenter.

At the beginning of this session, Drs. Susanto explained about alkalization in general. “Alkalization process is the process of adding alkali to nib, mass, and cocoa cake which aims to raise the pH and create color and improve product solubility,” said Drs. Susanto. Various types of alkali that can be used are K2CO3, MgCO3, Na2CO3, NH4CO3, and many more. Through the process of alkalization, the solubility, color, and taste of cocoa will change.

One of the purposes of this alkalization is to increase the solubility of cocoa. “Until now, cocoa powder itself cannot be made until it has 100% solubility, therefore we can only improve the solubility of cocoa through this alkalization process,” said Drs. Susanto.

Furthermore, Drs. Susanto explained about the role of the alkalization process in the formation of cocoa flavor and aroma. According to research by Li, the acid which is 60% of the fraction in cocoa is volatile. Through the alkalization process, the evaporated acid is only 30%. In the alkalization process, glycosylated flavanols are formed which play a role in reducing the bitter taste. In addition, glycosylation reactions can also reduce astringency.

In this alkalization process, of course, chemical changes also occur. First, there is a change in pH to be higher. Then there are also changes in temperature, vapor pressure, and oxygen levels. In addition, the longer the alkalization process, the better the color of the cocoa produced. During the alkalization process, several reactions occur. Starting from the neutralization reaction of acids, hydrolysis reactions of glycosides, hydrolysis reactions of esters which play a role in facilitating interactions with compounds that form cocoa flavors and aromas, Maillard reactions to create new flavors and aromas from cocoa, and various other reactions.

Drs. Susanto also explained various techniques of the alkalization process. Starting from the alkalization process on the cocoa nib, the alkalization process on the cocoa mass, and the alkalization process on cocoa powder. “This alkalization process is carried out on different cocoa components because cocoa machine companies are trying to create new things in the cocoa manufacturing process,” said Drs. Susanto. Therefore, a lot of patent research is being carried out by machine manufacturers and large cocoa factories in the world.

Reporter : Yoel Enrico Meiliano, Food Engineering 2020


Doctor Lienda A Handojo, ITB Lecturer Who Wins 3 Patents from Research on the Use of Palm Oil Side Products

* Dr. Ir. Lienda Aliwarga Handojo, M.Eng., Received the best poster award in the 2018 Indonesian Palm Oil Research Week in Bandung (Personal Doc.)

News Source :

BANDUNG, – Indonesia is known as one of the largest producers of crude palm oil in the world. Data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS) in 2017 states that Indonesia has 12.3 million hectares of oil palm land with 34.4 million tons of crude palm oil.

The use of palm oil in the food sector has taken root in everyday human life, such as the need for cooking oil, food ingredients, margarine, and others. In the process, crude palm oil must be distilled first before further use. The refining process will produce processed palm oil as the main product and Palm Fatty Acid Distillate or PFAD as a by-product that has not been widely used. This is what drives Dr. Ir. Lienda Aliwarga Handojo, M.Eng., For further research on the use of PFAD so that it can have added value.

Dr. Lienda is a lecturer in the Chemical Engineering Study Program, Bandung Institute of Technology who has been carrying out his work since 1979. In the midst of his busy teaching, he conducted research on the use of calcium fat as a animal feed supplement.

“Me and his team, Dr. Antonius Indarto and Dr. Dian Shofinita are currently researching the development of technology for the production of animal feed supplements using raw materials from the side of palm oil refining. This is expected to increase added value and produce products that benefit farmers, to increase production their cow’s milk, “Dr. Lienda.

She’s research has begun since 2016 when the Palm Oil Plantation Fund Management Agency (BPDPKS) held a funding selection for oil palm research and development. “At that time we submitted a proposal and this research was among those chosen to be funded,” She said.

Making calcium fat from PFAD involves complex phase changes. Starting from the solid phase, it turns into a concentrated liquid which is concentrated due to heating and addition of calcium solids, then expands rapidly until the volume reaches six times, then suddenly freezes again. Lienda said that special reaction techniques and reactor designs are needed so that this exothermic reaction can produce products with the desired composition. “The addition of calcium is intended so that the fat given as a supplement does not interfere with the digestion of livestock,” explained the Chairperson of the ITB Biomass and Food Chemistry Expertise Group.

Calcium fat from the study by Dr. Lienda and this team has also been tested in vitro and in vivo directly into livestock. In-vivo testing was carried out at the Lembang cattle farm, which is a milk center in West Java. Good results are shown in both tests. “In-vitro tests which include food digestibility, organic matter, ammonia content, and volatile fatty acids show our products are superior to commercial supplements,” She said.

* Visit of oil palm BPDP to Chemical Engineering ITB to review the results of research funded by BPDPKS (Personal Doc.)

“Likewise, the in-vivo test showed that the milk production of calcium-fed cow was 16% higher than that of non-supplemented cows and 4% higher compared to commercial supplements. Cows that are given calcium fat are physically healthier and more fertile because after giving birth usually dairy cows tend to experience a decrease in health and bone loss due to continuous excretion of milk without being balanced with appropriate intake, “She explained.

Dr. Lienda and the team’s hard work paid off sweetly because they had obtained three patents at once. “Three patents, namely patent processes, tools, and compositions have been made related to the production of calcium fat supplements. We are currently working on all the facilities to work with potential investors in producing calcium fat so that the product can be used to increase milk cow milk productivity in Indonesia. This is in line with what was stated by the Ministry of Industry, which is to increase local milk production, which in 2017 can only fulfill 23% of domestic demand to 60% by 2025, ” She said.

For this research, Dr. Lienda also became one of the 12 lecturers who received the Award for the Field of Work and Innovation at the commemoration of the 60th Anniversary of ITB. Not complacent, She plans to continue to develop the results of his research. “In the future we will also research poultry supplements that will be useful for poultry farmers in Indonesia,” She concluded.

Reporter: Billy Akbar Prabowo (Metallurgical Engineering 2016)



Did you know that 1 in 3 toddlers in Indonesia is affected by “stunting” or dwarf? (UNICEF, 2017) Stunting is a nutritional problem that causes the growth of a child to be very slow and even stops so that the child’s body will be shorter than the children his age. In fact, the development of the organs and brain of the child will also slow down. Stunting is caused by a lack of nutritional toddlers since in the mother’s womb.
Like the case with Bobi, a child at the Nias Orphanage. Bobi is one of the children who suffered from stunting or known as “Stunting.” Since he was 5 years old, his body was small compared to his friends. Not only that, Bobi also suffered from foot O, tuberculosis, and was also left behind in academic matters. Now 15-year-old Bobi is in grade 1 junior high school (because he often doesn’t go up to class) and has a height of 139.7cm. ————————————————– ————————————————– ————————–
1. The innovation that I, Evelyn Angelica, and Natasha Emanuella made was CASHELL DRINK. Nutrient-rich drinks such as calcium, iron, and proteins needed by mothers to nourish their children in the first 1000 days. Cashell is made from authentic Indonesian ingredients, cassava and water as the main ingredients, and then fortified with tolo beans as a source of protein and eggshells as a source of calcium.
2. The benefits of making Cashell Drink are to combat stunting problems in Indonesia. Cashell drink is expected to provide adequate nutrition for all mothers and children throughout Indonesia even for those who are below the poverty line so they cannot buy milk. Cashell Drinks are sold at Rp. 2,500 for 250mL in the hope that low-income mothers in the region can buy it — so that the problem of growing numbers of stunting sufferers in Indonesia can be prevented.

Greetings from us,
Team Cashell (Abigail Marcia, Evelyn Angelica, and Natasha Emanuella)